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从马克思到列宁:帝国主义概念的流变

通常认为,列宁的《帝国主义是资本主义的高级阶段》是马克思主义关于帝国主义论述的集大成并且是最为科学的论述。列宁的帝国主义理论吸收了从马克思、恩格斯到卢森堡、希法亭等马克思主义者的理论与观点,同时也受到霍布森等非马克思主义者的重要影响。作者认为,我们有必要在探讨信息帝国主义之前了解清楚帝国主义概念的流变。
马克思本人并没有提出过“帝国主义”的概念,他的贡献在于对资本主义的深刻剖析上。在对资本主义的分析中,马克思关于资本集中和殖民扩张的论述被视为马克思主义视野下的帝国主义理论的滥觞。马克思从雇佣劳动者阶级和资本家阶级的关系角度来定义资本主义。在布鲁厄(A. Brewer)看来,资本主义并不需要一个从属的落后地区或外围,尽管它会利用已经存在的这样的一个地区并从中获益。直到工业革命时,资本主义的对外关系是以商人为中介的,这种交流方式并没有必然地改变被纳入世界市场的其他社会。而一旦工业资本占主导地位,资本主义的征服就能够通过开始资本主义工业化而起到一种进步的——尽管是野蛮的——作用。欧洲资本主义的产生和迅速发展,以及它在亚洲的缓慢渗透,是这些地区先前生产方式存在差异的结果;欧洲的统治是这种差异的结果,而非原因。







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From Marx to Lenin: The Spread and Changes of Imperialism

Usually, we regards Imperialism is the Advanced Stage of Capitalism as comprehensiveness and most scientific discuss about imperialism summarized by Marx. Lenin’s imperialism theory absorbed some Marxist’s theories and ideas, like Marx, Engels, Luxemburg, and Hilferding. Also, his idea is influenced by some non-Marxists like Hobson. We believe that it is necessary to clearly understand the spread and change of imperialism before discussing information imperialism.
In fact, Marx never put up with the concept “imperialism”. His contribution lies in his profound analysis on capitalism. In his analysis, Marx’s discuss about concentration of capital and colonial expansion is regarded as the origin of imperialism in the sight of Marxism. From the perspective of relations between labor class and capitalist class, Marx defined capitalism. In A. Brewer’s view, capitalism does not need a subordinative backward area or periphery thought it will utilize an existing area and benefit from it. Businessmen have been the medium of external relations of capitalism until the industrial revolution. But this kind communication mode did not change other societies that were included into world market. Once industrial capital stand in the dominant position, the conquer of capitalism can be achieved through capitalism industrialization and works in a barbarous but progressive way. The emergence and fast developing of European capitalism and its slow spread in Asia is the result of diversity of the mode of production. The domination in Europe is the result of the diversity, not the reason. 

 

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